Rare Book Gallery
Chemische Abhandlung von der Luft und...
SCHEELE, Carl Wilhelm
Bookseller: Martayan Lan
Upsala & Leipzig Magn. Swederus. zu finden bey S.L. Crusius 1777. - 8vo, 3 ff., 16, 155, (1) pp. Engraved vignette on title & one folding... More
Upsala & Leipzig Magn. Swederus. zu finden bey S.L. Crusius 1777. - 8vo, 3 ff., 16, 155, (1) pp. Engraved vignette on title & one folding engraved plate, both depicting chemical apparatus. Bound with:BERGMANN, Torbern. Anleitung zu Vorlesungen über die Beschaffenheit und den Nutzen der Chemie, und die allgemeinsten Verschiedenheiten natürlicher Körper. Aus d. Schwedischen übersetzt. Stockholm and Leipzig, Swederus. 1779. 8vo, 95, (3 blank) pp. Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek and Berlin records call for xxxi preliminary pages as well as 95 numbered pages. Utrecht, Union Catalog Hesse, Bayrische Staatsbibliothek Munich records match our collation. First edition of this extremely scarce and important book which contains the announcement of Scheele’s discovery of oxygen, made independently of, and two years prior to, Priestley. Scheele’s monumental discovery was made by 1773; he had begun his experiments on oxygen in 1770. The publication of this book was delayed due to the fact that Tobern Bergman was two years late in delivering his promised preface. The work is fittingly bound with Bergman’s own lectures on the nature and application of chemistry, a rare work that is not included in his collected works Opuscula Physica et Chemica."The independent discovery of oxygen is here described and the composition of air by two gases is illustrated. One of these is necessary for combustion and respiration and it is absorbed by a number of solid substances and can be artificially produced; the second gas (nitrogen) prevents combustion. Scheele’s ‘fire-air’ (oxygen) could be produced from saltpetre, from black oxide of manganese, from oxide of mercury, etc. The photo-sensitive nature of chloride of silver was announced, a discovery that led to photography" (Dibner, Heralds of Science, 41). "Scheele (1742-1786) was an experimental genius; he made more discoveries of first-rate importance with fewer opportunities and scantier appliances than any one else, and his skill, insight and power of illuminating experimental results have never been surpassed, if indeed, they have ever been equaled" (Ferguson II.331).Bergman (1735-1784) was a member of the Swedish Academy and from 1767 professor of chemistry at Uppsala. He had a high regard for the younger Scheele and "did everything in his power to bring him to the notice of the scientific world. Bergman owed to him his transition from obscurity to a leading position in the world of science." (Partington, III, p. 208) His Essay on the General Usefulness of Chemistry and its Application to the Various Occasions of Life (thus the title of the English edition of 1783) gives "a general view [of] medical, oeconomical, and technical chemistry, halurgy, geurgy, theiurgy, salts, earths, inflammable substances, metals, waters and airs." (Partington III, p. 184) Bergman remained a follower of the phlogiston theory all his life.OCLC: Scheele: Burndy, Chemical Heritage Foundation, Cornell, Madison, NLM, Smithsonian, Stanford, UCLA, Yale. Bergmann: Cornell.* Scheele: DSB XII.143-50; Horblit 92; Partington III.205-34; Waller 11225; Gernsheim, Hist. of Photography (1969), pp. 32-33; not in Duveen, Ferguson, Young, or E.F. Smith collections.*Bergmann: Partington III, p. 184, F. Less
Price: 48000.00 USD
Zur Theorie des Gesetzes der...
Bookseller: SOPHIA RARE BOOKS
Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig 1900 - Rare first printing, and a very fine copy, of the founding document of quantum theory, "marking the dividing... More
Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig 1900 - Rare first printing, and a very fine copy, of the founding document of quantum theory, "marking the dividing line between classical and modern physics" (Norman). In this celebrated first announcement of quantum theory, Planck derived his radiation law based upon the assumption that energy is emitted and absorbed in discrete quanta. Dibner 166; PMM 391; Horblit/Grolier 26a; Evans 47; Sparrow 162. "In this important paper he stated that energy flowed not in continuous, indefinitely divisible currents, but in pulses or bursts of action [or quanta]" (Dibner). Planck determined a unit of energy in a system showing a natural frequency in definite quanta and proposed a constant of angular momentum, the value of which is known as ‘Planck's constant.’ This unit of energy enabled the explanation of wave-length, specific heat of solids, photo-chemical effects of light, the orbits of electrons in the atom, the wave lengths of the lines of the spectrum, or Röntgen rays, the velocity of rotating gas molecules, and the distances between the particles of a crystal. "It contradicted the mechanics of Newton and the electromagnetics of Faraday and Maxwell. Moreover it challenged the notion of the continuity of nature" (PMM). "Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolutionized our understanding of atomic and subatomic processes, just as Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity revolutionized our understanding of space and time. Together they constitute the fundamental theories of 20th-century physics. Both have forced man to revise some of his most cherished philosophical beliefs, and both have led to industrial and military applications that affect every aspect of modern life" (Roger H. Stuewer, Britannica). Published by the Berlin Physics Society, the first appearance of Planck’s revolutionary work is very rare. (It was later published, in 1901, in the more widely distributed Annalen der Physik). In: Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesselschaft im Jahre 1900, Zeiter Jahrgang, pp. 237-245. The entire volume offered here in a fine contemporary half cloth binding over marbled with gilt spine lettering, rubberstamp from the 'Physikalisches Institut, Universität Jena' to front free end-paper and title. 4to (217 x 148 mm), pp vi 260. A very fine copy. Less
Price: 16500.00 USD
Photography from the V-2 rocket at...
Bergstralh, T. A.
Bookseller: Jeremy Norman's historyofscience
Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 1947 - The First Published Photographs of the Earth Taken from Space Bergstralh, T. A. Photography from... More
Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 1947 - The First Published Photographs of the Earth Taken from Space Bergstralh, T. A. Photography from the V-2 rocket at altitudes ranging up to 160 kilometers. N. R. L. report no. R-3083. [ii]-vi, 25pp., 12 original photographic prints included in pagination. 1 sheet of printed Library of Congress catalogue cards laid in. Washington, DC: Naval Research Laboratory, April 1947. 265 x 204 mm. Original printed wrappers, cloth backstrip, small marginal tear in front cover; boxed. Fine copy, one of only 47 produced. First Edition of the first published photographs of the Earth from space—the first photographs to show the earth’s curvature Extremely rare—the distribution list on p. iii of Bergstralh’s report indicates that only 47 copies were prepared for various military, academic and private research institutions. The photographs, which show a large portion of the American southwest, were taken from cameras mounted on a V-2 rocket launched from the proving ground at White Sands, New Mexico. The rocket, which bore the number 21 but was the 20th V-2 launched at White Sands after number 1 misfired, was one of over 60 V-2 rockets captured from the Germans at the end of World War II in 1945. At that time the German rocketry program was at least 20 years ahead of any other such program in the developed world. As part of Project Paperclip, the United States government brought both the captured V-2s and over 100 German rocketry experts (headed by Wernher von Braun) to America, where they began what is now the U. S. space program. In 1946 the Upper Atmosphere Research Panel (also known as the V-2 panel) was formed to oversee a program of high-altitude experiments conducted using the V-2 rockets. On October 24, 1946 the research team was able to obtain photographs of the Earth taken from 65 miles above the surface; however, these photographs were not published until 1950 (see Newell, High Altitude Rocket Research p. 288). The present report announces that photographs were taken from more than 100 miles above the earth. "On 7 March 1947 the twentieth V-2 to be launched in America took to the air from the Army Ordnance Proving Ground at White Sands, New Mexico. As on several of the previous flights, an attempt was made to obtain photographs of the features of interest on the rocket and, of course, of the earth. In this attempt the effort met with considerable success. Included among the group of pictures obtained are the first ever to be taken from altitudes greater than 160 kilometers (100 miles). The quality of the photographs is fairly good. For the first time, in pictures taken at such high altitudes, it is possible to recognize clearly many geographical features. In addition a large number and variety of cloud formations were recorded by the cameras and other information of meteorological value" (p. 1). Photographs 11 and 12 are especially notable. Number 11 includes an overlay showing landmarks in New Mexico, Arizona and the Gulf of California. The caption to number 12 states that "this picture covers approximately 500,000 square miles of southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The photographs [making up the composite] do not match exactly due to the varying camera angles." Newell, High Altitude Rocket Research (1953), pp. 284-288. Krause, "High altitude research with V-2 rockets," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 91 (1947): 430-446. Reichhart, "The first photo from space," Air & Space Magazine, Smithsonian Institution, 1 Nov. 2006 (web). Less
Price: 30000.00 USD